Tag Archives: Smoking Related Diseases

Quit Smoking is the Way to Good Health

Cigarette smoking kills approximately 300,000 in the United States each year, and most of these people are seniors.

Lung cancer and emphysema are the best-known miserable outcomes.

However, accelerated development of atherosclerosis is the most important problem resulting from smoking.

This results in heart attacks and strokes, heart pains, leg pains, and many other problems. Pipe and cigar smoking do not have the pulmonary consequences that cigarette smoking does, but they do predispose to cancer of the lips, and tongue. Nicotine in any form has the same bad effects on the small blood vessels and thus accelerates development of atherosclerosis.

n.jpgIt is never too late to quit.

Only two years after stopping cigarette smoking, your risk of heart attack returns to average.

It has actually decreased substantially the very next day! After ten years your risk for lung cancer is back to nearly normal.

After only two years there is a decrease in lung cancer risk by perhaps one-third.

The development of emphysema is arrested for many people when they stop smoking, although this condition does not reverse. Seniors often feel that it is too late for changes in lifestyle to have beneficial effects on their health.

Not so. Most seniors have plenty of time to get major health benefits from quitting smoking. Remember that after age 65 men live an average of 15.4 more years and women 19.2 years. Chances of stroke and heart attack begin to go down immediately after you quit. Moreover, you will notice at once that your environment has become more friendly when you are not a smoker. Many of the daily hassles that impair the quality of your life go away when you stop offending others by this habit.

Many health educators are skeptical about cutting down slowly and stress that you need to stop completely. This may not always be true for seniors. For some people, rationing is a good way to get their smoking down to a much lower level, at which point it may be easier to stop entirely.

For example, the simple decision not to smoke in public can both help your health and decrease your daily hassles. To cut down, keep in the cigarette pack only those cigarettes you are going to allow yourself that day. Smoke the cigarettes only halfway down before extinguishing them.

There are many good stop-smoking courses offered through the American Cancer Society, the American Lung Association, and local hospitals. Most people won’t need these, but they can be of help. Try by yourself first. Then, if you still need help, get it.

Nicotine chewing gum or patches can help some people quit, and your doctor can give you a prescription and advice. Don’t plan on this as a long-term solution, since the nicotine in the gum or patch is just as bad for your arteries as the nicotine in cigarettes.

The challenge to stop smoking is an example of your ability to make your own choices if you are trapped by your addictions, even the lesser ones, you can’t make your own choices. Victory over smoking behaviors improves your mental health, in part because this is a difficult victory. It can open the door to success in other areas.

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/quit-smoking-is-the-way-to-good-health-220346.html

Smoke and Mirrors

Although the new Camel No. 9 cigarette’s manufacturer seeks to entice women with flavor and style, Sandy Hornung, 62, Olathe, said there is nothing glamorous about smoking-related cancer.

“I’m amazed. I saw this young woman smoking today and I just kind of looked at her like, ‘Are you crazy?'” Hornung said.

When diagnosed with Stage 3 lung cancer at age 37, Hornung said knowing she might die became frightening. Hornung said she started smoking at 18.

American Cancer Society statistics show 90 percent of adult smokers became addicts by age 18.

Photo of camel PackHornung dealt with hair loss and vomiting during chemotherapy and radiation. As far as the Camel No. 9 campaign, Hornung said people need to decide what they want.

“I’m sure seeing that they may think it’s sophisticated to smoke,” Hornung said. “I think it would be nice (if) they wouldn’t allow it. It comes down to the fact that people have to make their own choices.”

Camel No. 9 comes wrapped in sleek black and fuchsia or black and teal packaging. Heavy cardstock ads in women’s magazines such as Glamour and Cosmopolitan feature delicate flowers and boast about No. 9’s “light and luscious” flavors.

R.J. Reynolds spokesman David Howard, Winston-Salem, N.C., said company leaders held focus group sessions in early 2006 with about 2,000 women smokers to discuss the new cigarette.

“We came up with Camel No. 9 in response to female adult smokers who are asking for a product that better reflects their taste and style,” Howard said. “Ninety-five percent marked it as ‘a product for me.'”
Howard said R.J.

Reynolds wants to expand beyond male smokers. “Camel was underdeveloped with women,” Howard said. “We wanted the opportunity to grow the share of the market amongst adult female smokers.” According to R.J. Reynolds data, 19 million out of 20 million women smokers do not smoke Camels.

“They are smoking a competitor’s brand,” Howard said. “We wanted to come up with a concept that would be clearly, responsibly marketed to that audience.”

Company leaders decided the name Camel No. 9 “evokes positive images.”

“We thought it was very classy,” Howard said. “Like ‘dressed to the nines,’ an image that adult smokers identify with.”

Howard said the campaign does not target underage females.

“We have no interest in communicating to anyone but adult smokers,” Howard said.

In a society where one in five women smokes, Camel’s promotion of No. 9 outrages some health experts, including Kansas City American Heart Association Executive Director Nicole Stuke.

“Tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in the United States,” Stuke said. “With more than 178,000 women dying every year from smoking-related diseases, it’s unsettling that the tobacco industry feels the need to recruit more people to consume their harmful products.

Tactics like these underscore the need for Congress to grant the FDA authority to regulate tobacco products in much the same way they regulate other consumer products on the market.”

Camel No. 9 marketing concerns anti-tobacco lobbyists, including Campaign for Tobacco-free Kids Outreach Director Victoria Almquist, Washington.

“I bought a pack to show the women in my office and they kept saying how beautiful it was,” Almquist said. “It really does look like a box for Chanel perfume. It struck me as very clever marketing and I could see how this would be appealing to young women.”

Almquist called the tobacco company’s appeal to young women and children deplorable.

“Our studies show that most advertising done for Camel No. 9 is point of sale, which means that convenience stores are saturated with pictures and displays for Camel No. 9,” Almquist said. “We found out that 75 percent of teens visit a convenience store once a week; adults don’t go into convenience stores as much as kids do. Point of sale marketing really gets to teens.”

Almquist said she got a call from an alarmed parent who looked through a package her daughter received in the mail. The parent thought the package contained skin care product samples but instead contained a Camel No. 9 promotional kit complete with an offer for a free pack of cigarettes.

Besides direct mail, Camel No. 9 promoters have appealed to women by throwing spa nights and ladies nights at dance clubs. Spa nights included manicures, facials and goody bags.

The Federal Trade Commission reported the company has spent almost $50 million to market the cigarette.

“The tobacco industry targeting women is nothing new,” Almquist said. “It started in the ’30s where they had the ‘Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet’ ads in magazines. Those ads were horrifying.”

Almquist said the government exempts tobacco products from basic health regulations that apply to other products, such as food, drugs and dog food.

“We’re working on bills in the House and the Senate to push for regulation,” Almquist said. “Historically, tobacco products are not regulated products. You know your lipstick and dog food and know what it contains. (Tobacco companies) can change their ingredients all the time and don’t have to tell anyone.”

Almquist said people should write their legislators about how tobacco companies target women.

Rebecca Flann, 23, Overland Park, said she believes the new cigarette targets young women such as herself.

“The way it’s packaged, they are obviously trying to get women to think it’s cool and sophisticated,” Flann said.

After trying Camel No. 9, Flann said she considered the taste lighter than other cigarettes but did not want to buy them.

“I don’t really care about the way it looks that much. A cigarette is a cigarette,” Flann, a smoker, said.

Gino Hernandez, employee at the 125th Street and Quivira Road Phillips 66, said Camel No. 9 sales have roller-coastered.

“They started off really good,” Hernandez said. “We sold about six or seven cartons a week during the first month, but it’s died down.”

Hernandez said a “mainly younger crowd” purchases the cigarettes.

Decloud Studio employee Dayna Schroeder said the cigarette tastes good.

“I like the Turkish tobacco flavor,” Schroeder said. “It’s a lighter taste than Marlboro Lights.”

Schroeder said she would not purchase cigarettes based on looks, but she understands how the packaging appeals to young women.

“I can see how some women may be affected by it,” Schroeder said. “(The packaging) will catch your eye. I’m always drawn to Camel because of the images and I’ve tried the different flavors.”

Tobacco products and women make an unhealthy combination, University of Kansas Medical Center physician Charles Porter said.

“Smoking takes a toll on the entire reproductive process,” Porter said. “There’s an amazing array of bad things that happen to your body when you smoke.

“Smoking reduces placental blood flow and directly damages the infant’s lungs.”

Porter said studies show the death rate for infants becomes three or four times higher when women smoke during and after pregnancy.

He said exposing an infant to secondhand smoke “doubles the risk that the baby will die.”

Hornung said she wished people knew how smoking affects their health.

“I would want them to know that it can happen to them,” Hornung said. “It causes circulation problems and various kinds of cancers. I think the best advice is to never start smoking. It is very addictive behavior.”

Cancer is one of several smoking-related diseases.

“For women, the cancer most associated with smoking is cervical,” Porter said. “Men and women both can get lung and bladder cancer as well as leukemia from smoking.”

Porter said smoking facts contrast with beautiful women featured in advertisements.

“Studies have also shown that premature wrinkles on the face and all over the body can be caused by smoking,” Porter said. “When people smoke, the aging process is accelerated. People can look 20 years older than they are because of it.”

Although cancer-free now, Hornung said cancer changed her life completely and she credits her family, friends and M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston for her survival.

Almquist said the debate about marketing a disease-causing product will exist as long as the tobacco industry exists.

“Women should be outraged by this. Everyone should be,” Almquist said.

Source: Holly Kramer, Shawnee/Lenexa Sun

Tobacco Giants Targeted African Children to Boost Profits

British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris face allegations that they targeted young and underage smokers in Nigeria to increase smoking rates in developing countries as sales decline in the West.

Lawyers for Nigeria’s largest state, Kano, will argue today that the tobacco companies sponsored pop concerts and sporting events and, in some instances, gave away free cigarettes, to recruit minors to smoking.

Kano is one of four Nigerian states suing BAT Nigeria, its parent company in Britain and Philip Morris International to recover the costs of treating smoking-related diseases.

They are seeking damages of at least $38.6 billion (£19.1 billion).

Kano’s first hearing is today and cases in Gombe and Oyo begin tomorrow and Monday respectively. The Lagos case began in May and more states are expected to join.

Photo of Child “They want to prepare for a problem they know has already been created, as well as restrict the distribution of tobacco to young people,” said Babatunde Irukera, a lawyer representing the state governments. “The public health facilities are over tasked.”

The biggest increase in smoking in Nigeria has been among young people. The number of young women smokers grew tenfold between 1990 and 2001, according to the World Health Organization.

A large part of the plaintiffs’ evidence will come from the tobacco companies’ internal documents, which were released as part of a multi-billion-dollar settlement that the US tobacco industry reached with state governments in the 1990s. The documents, some of which have been seen by The Times, show the companies’ attempts to reach younger smokers by sponsoring well-known musicians, and their efforts to fight tobacco control initiatives.

Although there are laws banning tobacco advertising on billboards and on television and radio, there is no explicit legislation restricting the sale of cigarettes to underage smokers.

The plaintiffs argue that the youth market was and still is important to the tobacco industry, citing a Philip Morris USA report dated March 31, 1981, which says: “Today’s teenager is tomorrow’s potential regular customer, and the overwhelming majority of smokers first begin to smoke while still in their teens.”

A similar document prepared for BAT, dated July 25, 1991, discusses the habits of younger smokers in Nigeria. “New smokers enter the market at a very early age in many cases: as young as 8 or 9 years seems to be quite common,” according to the report, entitled The Cigarette Market in Nigeria.

A report prepared by the tobacco industry’s lobbying group in Nigeria, TACON, on October 18, 1981, detailed its strategy to defeat a Private Member’s Bill introduced in the House of Representatives to make provisions for warning cigarette smokers of the adverse health effects of smoking.

“It was decided that TACON’s main strategy should be to play down the health argument and concentrate instead on the economic,” the report said. “This proved to be the correct approach especially as Nigeria’s economy has been suffering . . . from the world recession.”

In an internal memo dated May 13, 1991, BAT talked about the use of Nigerian artists to promote its Benson brand, saying: “The young adult music platform of the B&H label is the type of image enhancement we need in Nigeria.”

Stephen Swedlow, an American lawyer who is advising the Nigerian state governments, told The Times: “The international tobacco companies have to develop these . . . markets because the smoking rates in the US and the UK have consistently dropped, based on litigation in the US and public health pressures in the UK.”

A spokeswoman for BAT said that the allegations were completely unfounded. “We don’t market to children and we have never attempted to do so,” she said. “We also actively lobby governments to raise the age at which people are allowed to buy tobacco to 18.”

A spokesman for Philip Morris said: “Philip Morris International and its affiliates do not currently sell cigarettes in Nigeria.”

Source: Times Online

Smoking and Skin Aging

Smoking cigarettes ages skin faster than anything else apart from sun damage.

There’s no gentle way of saying this. If you smoke cigarettes you need to stop.

Aside from the many health issues associated with smoking, if you care at all about wrinkles and you want to look younger for longer, then smoking is out.

Whilst the number of cigarette smokers is dropping world-wide, there are still one million new smokers lighting up each year in the US alone – many of them young women who may later come to regret the irreversible effects on their looks.

“For smokers, middle-age starts in the their early 30’s as the tell-tale wrinkles around the mouth and eyes begin to appear. Young female smokers are likely to be wasting their money on anti-aging face creams if they continue to smoke.”

Smoking is not an equal opportunity addiction. That’s official – and it’s supported by many years of research by reputable medical bodies.

You may not be aware that:

  • The nicotine in cigarettes is more addictive for women and women have much more difficulty quitting smoking than men.
  • Women who smoke have twice the additional risk of heart attacks, strokes and lung cancer than men who smoke.
  • Lung cancer kills three times the number of American women than breast cancer – currently around 70,000 per year.
  • Smoking is linked to early menopause in women.
  • The aging effect of smoking on the skin is worse for women who are more likely to develop “smoker’s face” than male smokers.

In 2001 the special risks of smoking for women were recognized by the US Surgeon General in a special report warning women of the dangers from smoking cigarettes. Similar statements were made by European government bodies and other world authorities.

Even if you dismiss the health risks for whatever reason – take time to consider how smoking cigarettes will damage your skin and accelerate the aging process. Do you really want this to happen to you?

Skin Aging and the Smoker’s Face

skin-smoking.jpgThe effects of smoking on skin aging have been recognized for a long time. A 1965 study first identified what came to be known as “smokers face” – gray, pale and wrinkled skin.

In recent years much research has focused on this area and it’s now broadly accepted that the skin of smokers is damaged by smoking making them look older than non-smokers.

The Chief Medical Officer of the UK recently highlighted the link between smoking and skin damage saying that smoking adds between 10-20 years to your natural age.

How Does Smoking Speed Up Skin Damage?

It all starts with the ‘free radicals’ formed in your body by the exposure to tobacco smoke.

Free radicals are highly unstable and powerful molecules that can cause disease and damage to cell DNA. The cells of your body start behaving erratically producing a range of responses that make your skin age faster.

The most serious damage to skin is caused by:

  • Restricted blood flow through the capilliaries (tiny veins near the skins surface) preventing oxygen and nutrients getting to the skin.
  • Increased production of an enzyme which breaks down the supply of collagen to the skin’s structure. Collagen supply is vital to the skin’s elasticity. It decreases with age but smoking cigarettes accelerates this process.
  • Smoking reduces the body’s store of vitamin A which provides protection from skin damage.
  • Smoking gets in the way of absorption of vitamin C – a vital antioxidant for skin protection and health.
  • Continual puckering from drawing on a cigarette and squinting in reaction to the cigarette smoke create deeply wrinkled skin around the eyes and mouth – classic signs of  “smoker’s face.”

What Does a Smoker’s Skin Look Like Over Time?

Smoking statistics will clearly tell you the risk of death and disease from your smoking habit, but what about how your skin will look like if you continue to smoke?

This is what to expect of smoker’s skin overtime :

  • Dull appearance to the skin – loss of skin glow and vitality.
  • Discolored skin (an ashy look on white skins).
  • Deeper wrinkles around the mouth and eyes.
  • Loss of tone and elasticity more than with the normal aging process.

Or you can simply listen to the words of a senior dermatologist – Professor Young of Guys School of Medicine in London was the leader of the team that demonstrated in 2001 how collagen loss was accelerated by smoking.

“Smoking exerts such a noticeable effect on the skin that it’s often possible to detect whether or not a person is a smoker simply by looking at his or her face. Smokers have more wrinkles and their skin tends to have a greyish pallor compared to non-smokers.”

Can Skin damage From Smoking Be Reversed?

There’s no doubt you won’t be able to completely reverse the damage that smoking has done.

But – with a good diet, skin supplements, and great anti aging skin care you can do a lot to get your youthful skin back.

By quitting smoking you can stop the damage getting any worse. Why wait and then quit later when even more damage has been done to your skin?

When you look at your skin remember that some damage won’t appear until ten to twenty years after you began to smoke.

So if you haven’t been smoking that long and you don’t see much damage yet – don’t assume it won’t happen.

The important thing for your skin and your looks is to stop inflicting continued damage on yourself. If you quit smoking now you will stop your skin aging any faster than it normally would. And with proper anti aging skin care and nutrition your skin will look much better into the future than it will if you carry on as a smoker.

Source: http://lifestyle.simplyantiaging.com/smoking-and-skin-aging/

Cigarette Smoking and Its Impact on Spinal Fusions

Learn About the Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking

According to the American Cancer Society, “48 million adults (25.7 million men and 22.3 million women) were current smokers in the United States in 1997.”

Many of these adult smokers started during their teenage years. Unfortunately, even today people still begin to smoke cigarettes despite published statistics that show its negative impact on health.

The adverse effects of smoking include nicotine addiction, an increased risk of lung and other types of cancer, higher rates of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and heart disease, as well as decreased life expectancy.

Cigarettes contain dried tobacco leaves and flavorings, which include more than 4,000 chemicals. Some of these substances are harmless until burned and breathed.

The Spine and Cigarette Smoking

Picture of SpineBone is a living tissue dependent on the functions and support provided by the other body systems. When these systems are not able to perform normally, bone is unable to rebuild itself. The formation of bone is particularly influenced by physical exercise and hormonal activity, both of which are adversely affected by cigarette smoking.

Many smokers have less physical endurance than nonsmokers, mainly due to decreased lung function. Cigarette smoking reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood and increases the level of harmful substances, such as carbon monoxide. This, combined with the effects of smoking on the heart and blood vessels, can limit the benefits from physical activity.

In men and women, cigarette smoking is known to influence hormone function. Smoking increases estrogen loss in women who are perimenopausal or postmenopausal. This can result in a loss of bone density and lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis causes bones to lose strength, becoming more fragile. This silent disease is responsible for many spine and hip fractures in the United States.

Spinal Fusion and Cigarette Smoking

Defined Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure used to join bony segments of the spine (e.g. vertebrae). In order for the fusion to heal, new bone growth must occur, bridging between the spinal segments. Sometimes fusion is combined with another surgical technique termed spinal instrumentation. Instrumentation consists of different types of medically designed hardware such as rods, hooks, wires, and screws that are attached to the spine. These devices provide immediate stability and hold the spine in proper position while the fusion heals.

Spinal fusion (also termed arthrodesis) can be performed at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar levels of the spine. It takes months to heal. Your doctor may order post-operative radiographs (x-rays) to monitor the progress of this healing.

The long-term success of many types of spinal surgery is dependent upon successful spinal fusion. In fact, if the fusion does not heal, spinal surgery may have to be repeated. A failed fusion is termed a nonunion or pseudoarthrosis. Spinal instrumentation, although very strong, may even break if nonunion occurs. Needless to say, spine surgeons try to minimize the risk of this happening.

Cigarette Smoking and Failed Fusion

Certain factors have been found to affect the success of spinal fusion. Some of these factors include the patient’s age, underlying medical conditions (e.g. diabetes, osteoporosis), and cigarette smoking. There is growing evidence that cigarette smoking adversely affects fusion. Smoking disrupts the normal function of basic body systems that contribute to bone formation and growth. As mentioned previously, new bone growth is necessary for a fusion to heal.

Research has demonstrated that habitual cigarette smoking leads to the breakdown of the spine to such a degree that fusion is often less successful when compared to similar procedures performed on non-smokers. In a study of patients undergoing anterior cervical fusion (fusion of the neck), it was observed that smokers had an increased rate of nonunion (up to 47%) as compared to non-smokers.1

Another study evaluated tobacco use in patients who underwent lumbar (low back) fusion. The patients who smoked had failed fusions in up to 40% of cases, compared to only 8% among non-smokers.2 Similar findings have been reported in other studies as well.

Post-Operative Infection

Cigarette smoking compromises the immune system and the body’s other defense mechanisms, which can increase the patient’s susceptibility to post-operative infection. A study conducted by Thalgott et al showed that cigarette smoking was a risk factor for infection following spinal fusion.3

Conclusion

Clearly, cigarette smoking is detrimental to spinal fusion. People who are facing fusion or any spinal surgery should make every effort to stop smoking. Quitting the habit beforehand will decrease the associated risks and increase the likelihood of a successful spinal fusion surgery.

Your physician recognizes the importance of smoking cessation and can provide information about available treatment options.

References

1. An HS, Simpson JM, Glover JM, Stephany J. Comparison between allograft plus demineralized bone matrix versus autograft in anterior cervical fusion. A prospective multicenter study. Spine 1995; 20: 2211-16.

2. Brown CW, Orme TJ, Richardson HD. The rate of pseudarthrosis (surgical nonunion) in patients who are smokers and patients who are nonsmokers: a comparison study. Spine 1986; 9: 942-3

3. Thalgott JS, Cotler HB, Sasso RC, LaRocca H, Gardner V. Postoperative infections in spinal implants. Classification and analysis — a multicenter study. Spine 1991: 8: 981-4.
Original Source: Larry Davidson, M.D. Spine Universe, Memphis, TN, USA 07/28/2006

Smoking Effects on Your Body

There are over 60 known cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke.

While nicotine itself isn’t thought to be carcinogenic, the highly addictive drug is toxic and potentially lethal in large doses

Apart from its use in tobacco products, nicotine is a scheduled poison under the Therapeutic Goods Act.

Along with nicotine, smokers also inhale about 4,000 other chemicals. Many of these compounds are chemically active and trigger profound and damaging changes in the body.

Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general.

Picture of Lungs

Tobacco smoke contains dangerous chemicals. The most damaging compounds in tobacco smoke include:

Tar: This is the collective term for all the various particles suspended in tobacco smoke. The particles contain chemicals including several cancer-causing substances. Tar is sticky and brown and stains teeth, fingernails and lung tissue. Tar contains the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene that is known to trigger tumor development (cancer).

Carbon monoxide: This odorless gas is fatal in large doses because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Each red blood cell contains a complicated protein called haemoglobin; oxygen molecules are transported around the body by binding to, or hanging onto, this protein.

However, carbon monoxide has a greater affinity than oxygen for binding to haemoglobin. This means that the heart of a smoker has to work much harder to get enough oxygen to the brain, heart, muscles and other organs.

Hydrogen cyanide: The lungs contain tiny hairs (cilia) that help to clean the lungs by moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide stops this lung clearance system from working properly, which means the poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke can build up inside the lungs.

Other chemicals in smoke that damage the lungs include hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, organic acids, phenols and oxidizing agents.

Free radicals: These highly reactive chemicals can damage the heart muscles and blood vessels. They react with cholesterol, leading to the build up of fatty material on artery walls. Their actions lead to heart disease, stroke and blood vessel disease.

Metals: Tobacco smoke contains dangerous metals including arsenic, cadmium and lead. Several of these metals are carcinogenic.

Radioactive compounds: Tobacco smoke contains radioactive compounds, which are known to be carcinogenic.

Effects of Smoking Tobacco on Body Systems

Smoking and the Respiratory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:

  • Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box).
  • Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages.
  • Impairment of the lungs’ clearance system, leading to the build up of poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage.
  • Increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing.
  • Permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.

Smoking Effects on the Circulatory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:

  • Raised blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature.
  • Less oxygen carried by the blood.
  • Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting.
  • Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls).
  • Reduced blood flow to extremities like fingers and toes.
  • Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Cigarettes Effect on the Immune System

The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:

  • The immune system doesn’t work as well and is supressed.
  • The immune system can not keep up with attempting to detox your system while tending other priorities
  • The person is more prone to infections.
  • It takes longer to get over an illness.

Smoking and the Musculoskeletal System

The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:

  • Tightening of certain muscles.
  • Reduced bone density.

Other Effects of Smoking on the Body

Other effects of tobacco smoke on the body include:

  • Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
  • Increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract.
  • Reduced ability to smell and taste.
  • Premature wrinkling of the skin.
  • Higher risk of blindness.
  • Gum disease.

Effects of Tobacco on Men Smokers

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the male body include:

  • Lower sperm count.
  • Higher percentage of deformed sperm.
  • Reduced sperm mobility.
  • Changed levels of male sex hormones.
  • Impotence, which may be due to the effects of smoking on blood flow and damage to the blood vessels of the penis.

Smoking Effects on Women’s Body

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the female body include:

  • Reduced fertility.
  • Menstrual cycle irregularities or absence of menstruation.
  • Menopause reached one or two years earlier.
  • Increased risk of cancer of the cervix.
  • Greatly increased risk of stroke and heart attack if the smoker is aged over 35 years and taking the oral contraceptive pill.

Smoking Effects on the Fetus

The effects of maternal smoking on an unborn baby include:

  • Increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature birth.
  • Low birth weight, which may have a lasting effect of the growth and development of children. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for early puberty, and in adulthood is an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
  • Increased risk of cleft palate and cleft lip.
  • Paternal smoking can also harm the fetus if the non-smoking mother is exposed to passive smoking.
  • If the mother continues to smoke during her baby’s first year of life, the child has an increased risk of ear infections, respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, croup and bronchitis, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and meningococcal disease.

Diseases Caused by Long Term Smoking

A lifetime smoker is at high risk of developing a range of potentially lethal diseases, including:

  • Cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, voice box, lip, tongue, nasal sinus, oesophagus, throat, pancreas, bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia), kidney, cervix, ureter, liver, bladder and stomach.
  • Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
  • Coronary artery disease, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.
  • Ulcers of the digestive system.
  • Osteoporosis and hip fracture.
  • Poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain, and in severe cases gangrene and amputation.

Source: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au

Nicotine and the Link Between Smoking and Kidney Disease

Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most preventable cause of death and chronic disease in the United States.

In addition to being a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cancer, recent epidemiologic studies suggest that cigarette smoke promotes the progression of kidney disease.

The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke may accelerate some types of chronic kidney disease are currently unknown.

A new study, being published by the American Physiological Society (http://www.the-aps.org/), demonstrates for the first time that human mesangial cells (MC) – cells in the blood vessels of the kidneys – are endowed with nicotinic receptors (cells that interact with the nicotine in tobacco) and may play an active role in the development of certain kidney diseases

Dangers of 69 Cancer Causing Chemicals in Cigarettes to Men, Women and Unborn Babies

There are 69 known cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke.

While nicotine itself isn’t thought to be carcinogenic, it’s the reason why smokers continue the habit.

This highly addictive drug is toxic and potentially lethal in large doses.

Apart from its use in tobacco products, nicotine is a scheduled poison under the State Poisons Act. When they get their dose of nicotine, smokers also inhale about 4,000 other chemicals.

Most of these compounds are chemically active, and trigger profound and damaging changes in the body.

Tobacco smoke contains dangerous chemicals. The most damaging compounds in tobacco smoke include:

Picture of a smoker1,3-butadiene – or BDE is an industrial chemical used in rubber manufacture. Some scientists believe that of all the chemicals in tobacco smoke, BDE may present the greatest overall cancer risk. It may not be as good at causing cancer as some of the other chemicals listed here, but it is found in large amounts in tobacco smoke.

Ammonia – ammonia is a strong chemical, found in household cleaners and formaldehyde (used for preserving organs of dead people in morgues), which also damages the lungs.

Arsenic – is one of the most dangerous chemicals in cigarettes. It can cause cancer as well as damaging the heart and its blood vessels. Small amounts of arsenic can accumulate in smokers’ bodies and build up to higher concentrations over months and years. As well as any direct effects, it can worsen the effect of other chemicals by interfering with our ability to repair our DNA.

Acrolein – is a gas with an intensely irritating smell and is one of the most abundant chemicals in cigarette smoke. It belongs to the same group of chemicals as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, both of which can cause cancer.

Benzene – is a solvent used to manufacture other chemicals, including petrol. It is well-established that benzene can cause cancer, particularly leukemia. It could account for between a tenth and a half of the deaths from leukemia caused by smoking.

Cadmium – is a metal used mostly to make batteries. The majority of cadmium in our bodies comes from exposure to tobacco smoke. Smokers can have twice as much cadmium in their blood as non-smokers.

Carbon monoxide – this odor less gas is fatal in large doses because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Each red blood cell contains a complicated protein called hemoglobin; oxygen molecules are transported around the body by binding to, or hanging onto, this protein. However, carbon monoxide has an even greater affinity for binding to hemoglobin than does oxygen. This means that the heart of a smoker has to work much harder to get enough oxygen to the brain, heart, muscles and other organs.

Formaldehyde – is a smelly chemical used to kill bacteria, preserve dead bodies and manufacture other chemicals. It is one of the substances in tobacco smoke most likely to cause diseases in our lungs and airways.

Hydrogen cyanide – the lungs contain tiny hairs (cilia) that help to ‘clean’ the lungs by moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide stops this lung clearance system from working properly, which means the poisonous ingredients of tobacco smoke are allowed to remain inside the lungs.

Metals – tobacco smoke contains dangerous metals including arsenic, cadmium and lead. Many of these metals are carcinogenic.

Nitrogen oxides – animal experiments have shown that nitrogen oxides damage the lungs. It is thought that nitrogen oxides are some of the particular chemicals in tobacco smoke that cause the lung disease emphysema.

Polonium-210 – is a rare, radioactive element and polonium-210 is its most common form. Polonium strongly emits a very damaging type of radiation called alpha-radiation that can usually be blocked by thin layers of skin. But tobacco smoke contains traces of polonium, which become deposited inside their airways and deliver radiation directly to surrounding cells.

Chemical properties of polonium-210

Radioactive compounds – tobacco smoke contains radioactive compounds, which are known to be carcinogenic.

Tar – this is the collective term for all the various particles suspended in tobacco smoke. The particles contain chemicals including nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Tar is sticky and brown, and stains teeth, fingernails and lung tissue. Tar contains the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene that is known to trigger tumour development (cancer).

Smoking Effects on the Respiratory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:
–Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box).
–Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages.
–Inability of the lungs to cough out and clear poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage.

Smoking and the Circulatory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:
–Raised blood pressure and heart rate.
–Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature.
–Less blood, which carries oxygen, available to the body.
–Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting.
–Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a
contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls).
–Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Cigarettes Effects on the Immune system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:
–The immune system doesn’t work as well.
–The person is more prone to infections.
–It takes longer to get over an illness.

Smoking Addiction Dangers to Musculoskeletal System

The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:
–Reduced blood flow to extremities like fingers and toes
–Tightening of the muscles
–Reduced bone density.

Other Effects Of Smoking On the Body

Other effects of tobacco smoke on the body include:
–Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines
–Increased risk of bleeding ulcers along the digestive tract
–Reduced ability to smell and taste
–Premature wrinkling of the skin
–Higher risk of blindness and hearing loss
–Gum disease.

Smoking and The Male Body

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the male body include:
–Lower sperm count
–Higher percentage of deformed sperm
–Reduced sperm mobility
–Lower sex drive
–Reduced levels of male sex hormones
–Impotence, caused by reduced blood flow to the penis
–Increased risk of reproductive system cancers, including penile cancer.

Smoking Effects on the Female Body

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the female body include:
–Reduced fertility.
–Lower sex drive.
–Reduced levels of female sex hormones.
–Menstrual cycle irregularities or absence of menstruation.
–Menopause reached one or two years earlier.
–Increased risk of reproductive system cancers, including cancers of the cervix, vulva and breast.
–Greatly increased risk of stroke and heart attack if the smoker is aged over 35 years and taking the oral contraceptive pill.
–Can increase facial hair.
–Can lead to depression.

Smoking Dangers to the Unborn Baby

The effects of maternal smoking on the unborn baby include:
–Increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature birth.
–Low birth weight.
–Increased risk of cleft palate and cleft lip.
–Greater risk of developmental problems, such as attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
–Paternal smoking can also harm the fetus if the non-smoking mother is exposed to passive smoking.

If the mother continues to smoke during her baby’s first year of life, the child has an increased risk of ear infections, respiratory illnesses such as asthma, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood cancers such as acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

Diseases Caused by Long Term Smoking

A lifetime smoker is at high risk of developing a range of potentially
lethal diseases, including:
All types of cancer, such as cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, throat,
pancreas, blood, kidney, penis, cervix, bladder and anus. Lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Coronary artery disease, heart disease and heart attack. Ulcers of the digestive system. Osteoporosis. Poor blood circulation in extremities, which can lead to amputation.

Things to Remember

Most of the 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke are chemically active and
trigger profound and potentially fatal changes in the body.

The most damaging substances in tobacco smoke include tar, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, metals, ammonia and radioactive compounds.

Sources: Surgeon General, U.S
National Center For Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
UK’s “Smoke is Poison” campaign, funded by the Department of Health.