Tag Archives: cigarette carcinogens

Quit Smoking

Smoking a Cigarette is Like Drinking Formaldehyde

Each year in the state of Florida 28,000 people die from tobacco-related diseases.

Smoking and tobacco use amongst Floridians cost approximately $19.6 billion each year in health care costs and sickness.

Tobacco Free Florida exists to deter people from using tobacco products and to encourage those already using to quit using a powerful media campaign.

Tobacco Free Florida

The Tobacco Free Florida (TFF) program was established following a 2006 constitutional amendment where tobacco prevention programs were reinstated. The program is funded using money from tobacco settlement agreements.

Quit SmokingTFF offers on its website descriptive and honest reasons why people should quit smoking and using other products, such as smokeless tobacco. The site lists all the cancers that can occur from smoking or chewing, and even compares the health and wellness of a smoker to that of a non-smoker. For example, did you know that on average, a smoker will die thirteen to fourteen years before a non-smoker?

In addition to a section devoted to “quit tips,” the TFF site also offers online and telephone support. As an added incentive for people considering quitting, there are several video testimonials from former tobacco users who were able to overcome their addiction.

Known Carcinogen Formaldehyde in Cigarettes

There are thousands of chemicals in each cigarette, including chemicals that are known to cause cancer. For example, formaldehyde, the chemical used for preserving laboratory samples and dead bodies. This substance was classified by the US Department of Health and Human Services as a known human carcinogen in 2010.

Cigarettes are Addictive and Infectious

Everyone knows cigarettes are extremely dangerous and addictive.

An American researcher wanted to also draw attention to how infectious the tobacco in cigarettes is, as the substance is laden with bacteria.

In fact, there is so much bacteria present in tobacco, Amy Sapkoto believes the number of germs could certainly be compared to the number of toxic chemicals and carcinogens that have been isolated.

The Theory

Environmental scientist from the University of Maryland, Amy Sapkota, conducted a study that looked at the bacteria found in tobacco and whether or not these bacteria could possibly be a source of infection for a person who comes in contact with it. Sapkota conjectured that simply touching a cigarette or putting one unlit in the mouth can encourage an impairment of bodily functions.

Types of Bacteria Found

The researchers examined the genetic makeup of the bacteria they were able to isolate from the tobacco under sterile conditions. The genetic material of almost 800 different bacteria was compared to the bacteria in the four most smoked brands of cigarettes in Western countries: Marlboro Red, Camel, Kool Filter Kings, and Lucky Strike Original Red.

A few of the bacteria found in the cigarettes researched in this study include:

  • Campylobacter, a germ leading to food poisoning and Guillan-Barre Syndrome;
  • Clostridium, another germ causing food poisoning as well as leading to pneumonia;
  • Corynebacterium, another pneumonia-triggering bacteria;
  • E.Coli;
  • Klebsiella, associated with pneumonia and urinary tract infections;
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, another bacteria also associated to cases of pneumonia and urinary tract infections;
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a third bacteria playing a part in pneumonia and urinary tract infections; and
  • several staphylococcus species.

Infectious Bacteria

Cigarettes and BacteriaSapkota doesn’t heed attention to claims that a burning cigarette would kill any bacteria present in the tobacco.

Instead, she theorizes that the cigarette smoke picks up bacteria as it is inhaled, and deposits it into the smoker’s lungs. From here, the bacteria thrives and contributes to the formation of disease.

Reference: Cigarettes might be infectious . . . and, presumably, people wouldn’t need to light up to risk getting sick [http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/55678/title/Cigarettes_might_be_infectious]

What Do Nicotine, Sugar, Urine, and Arsenic Have in Common?

Who would ever think of putting nicotine, sugar, urine, and arsenic in the same sentence?

If you have ever smoked a cigarette you may not have to speak the words in a sentence together to experience their relationship.

Here are a few cigarette facts!

The Power of Nicotine

When inhaling the smoke from a cigarette, the nicotine content reaches the brain in only ten seconds. The first time smokers can tell you that from the dizzy buzz they feel.

Also, researchers have found just after smoking a cigarette the nicotine is found in every part of the body. Women who smoke will also find it in their breast milk shortly after lighting up. So babies consuming breast milk are also consuming nicotine on top of being exposed to second hand smoke.

This makes a person wonder why many major manufacturers of cigarettes are increasing the amount of tobacco they put in their deadly sticks. It is a fact that Harvard University and the Massachusetts Health Department discovered that between the years of 1997 bad 2005 Camel, Doral, and Newport increased nicotine content by as much as eleven percent.

Cigarette makers also have found a way to make the nicotine more potent. They combine the tobacco with active ingredients which are further enhanced with special production methods to ensure the nicotine strength is many times more potent that the natural nicotine substance found in the tobacco plant.

Cigarette Additives Include 20% Sugar

pic-sugarWe all know how habit forming nicotine is and its ill side effects. But not many realize that cigarettes also contain sugar.

Up to twenty percent of a cigarette contains sugar, which is one of the most unhealthy substances for those already dealing with diabetes.

No one really knows what happens when sugar is burned and how ingesting its smoke can effect the body. So really diabetics are taking in sugar just by smoking. Maybe this is one reason why many smokers are diabetics who have struggling immune systems.

To top this off, cigarette makers blend in a few toppings to sweeten the pot.

Here is a list of some of the cigarette topping ingredients:

  • clove
  • licorice
  • orange oil
  • apricot stone
  • lime oil
  • lavender oil
  • dill seed oil
  • cocoa
  • carrot oil
  • mace oil
  • myrrh
  • beet juice
  • bay leaf
  • oak
  • rum
  • vanilla
  • vinegar

Next on the list are 43 known carcinogens plus arsenic and formaldehyde. We also have been warned of how dangerous of lead poisoning so why would cigarettes contain this heavy metal? Why is there lead in cigarettes? You will also find: hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide,  and ammonia. Yum!

Are You Inhaling Yellow Smoke?

Now this next ingredient is very strange! Urea is a a chemical compound that is a major component in urine. Yep, urea is also added to cigarettes to enhance their flavor? Personally we don’t really quite understand why any component found in Urine would taste good.

Rather than naming the more than 4,000 ingredients contained in cigarettes, we will stop here. When someone passes you who is smoking after reading these cigarette facts you may be inclined to run the other direction as fast as you can!

Smoking Ups Colon Cancer Risk

Italian researchers recently reported that smoking cigarettes ups the the risk of getting colorectal cancer by 18 percent and the risk of malignancy by about 25 percent.

This study is published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (December 17, 2008).

Smoking cigarettes does a lot of damage to your body.

Organs that have direct contact with carcinogens from smoking are more likely to become affected by cancer. These organs include: lungs, throat, larynx, oropharynx, and the upper digestive tract. Organs that have indirect exposure to carcinogen from smoking include: pancreas, bladder, cervix, kidneys, rectum and colon. These organs also have an increased chance of becoming affected by cancer.

smelly ciggy“Smoking is significantly associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality,” said the study’s lead author, Edoardo Botteri, a biostatistician in the division of epidemiology and biostatistics at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy.

Read more about it at HealthDay News

Toddlers Most Affected by Second Hand Smoke

Second hand smoke in the home appears to induce markers for heart disease as early as the toddler years.

Researchers reported this news at the American Heart Association 48th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention in March.

It has long been known that many forms of cardiovascular disease in adults are initiated and progress silently during childhood. Now researchers have found a young child’s response to smoke may not just affect the respiratory system, but the cardiovascular system as well.

“This is the first study that looks at the response of a young child’s cardiovascular system to secondhand smoke,” said Judith Groner, MD, lead author of the study, pediatrician and ambulatory care physician at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and Research Institute in Columbus, OH.The study included 128 children, 2 to 5 years old and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 14. Researchers found that the younger children absorbed six times more nicotine than the older children from the same levels of parental smoking. That exposure resulted in a dramatic increase of markers of inflammation and vascular injury signaling damage to the endothelium, the inner lining of the vessel walls.

Hair samples of the younger children had average nicotine levels of 12.68 nanograms per milligram of hair compared to adolescent group, which had 2.57 nanograms per milligram of hair. Toddlers had significantly higher levels of the inflammatory marker soluble intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAM).

“Toddlers in the homes of smokers not only had higher levels of nicotine, but also had higher levels of markers for cardiovascular disease in the blood,” said John Bauer, PhD, senior author of the study and director of the Center for Cardiovascular Medicine at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. “The dose of smoke is greater in toddlers than adolescents who are able to move in and out of the home. Toddlers are like a fish in a fishbowl. They are exposed at a higher dose. And it appears that toddlers also are more susceptible to the cardiovascular effects of smoke.”

Toddlers and a Fish BowlMost of the children in the study had varying levels of secondhand smoke exposure, measured by the number of adult smokers a child was exposed to in 24 hours. Researchers took hair samples to determine nicotine levels in the body and drew blood to determine endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) levels by flow cytometry. Endothelial progenitor cells replenish the endothelium and serve as a biological marker for vascular function.

Researchers also measured known inflammatory markers, such as ICAM, in the blood. “When we analyzed our data by looking at the relationships between the number of smokers in the home and the EPC levels, we found that in toddlers, there was an inverse relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and EPC prevalence,” Dr. Groner said. “In other words, the more smokers the toddler was exposed to, the fewer EPC cells were circulating in his bloodstream. This relationship was not present among the adolescents.”

The vascular endothelium (the inner lining of arteries and blood vessels) plays a key role in promoting cardiovascular health by maintaining the tone and circulation of the arteries. ICAM is a specific marker of endothelial cell stress, which contributes to artery clogging and atherosclerosis, raising the risk of heart disease.

“The combustion of the cigarettes appears to be causing endothelial damage which is reflected in the increase in soluble ICAM in exposed children,” Dr. Groner stated. “Toddlers who are in the vicinity of smokers in the home have a higher dose of tobacco chemicals. They live at home and can’t escape. Young children also breathe faster, taking more smoke into their respiratory system.”

Past studies found that the levels of EPC are lower in adult smokers. EPCs have not been studied previously in non-smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke.

This study indicates that cardiovascular effects of tobacco exposure in children are very similar to that of adults in the affect on the vascular wall, Dr. Groner said.

She noted the study is a “snapshot in time” and doesn’t give a long-term picture of the effects of secondhand smoke on the developing cardiovascular system of children.

“The results are intriguing, but further study is needed,” she said. “We’re not sure what happens to kids if they stay in a smoking environment or if they have multiple risk factors such as being overweight or having high blood pressure. Until then, parents and others should not smoke in homes with children, and should be especially attentive to this issue around toddlers.”

Other study authors were: Hong Huang, MD, PhD; Lisa Nicholson, PhD; Danielle Frock; Catherine Schroeder; and Jennifer Kuck, ACSM.

The Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI) funded the study.

Source: Advance

Act Now on Cigarettes, Expert Says

An Australian adviser to the World Health Organisation has warned the ingredients of strawberry jam face tougher regulation than the deadly contents of cigarettes and has urged the Federal Government to act immediately.

A leading international expert on the health impacts of tobacco smoke, Dr Nigel Gray said he was disgusted that carcinogens in cigarettes remained unregulated, despite killing about 15,000 Australians each year.

“Controls apply to almost every marketed product from the amount of rat droppings permitted in wheat, to the amount of fat allowed in sausages and even the amount of mint allowed in nicotine replacement therapy,” Dr Gray said in an editorial published in the Medical Journal of Australia yesterday.

“It seems astonishing that the federal minister for drug and alcohol policy recently rejected claims that a new tobacco product (a ‘heatbar’, which heats but does not burn tobacco) should be subject to regulation and said there were no plans to even investigate the product.”

In June, The Age revealed that tobacco giant Philip Morris had secret plans to launch Australia’s first hand-held electronic smoking device. Dr Gray worked on a recent report by the WHO, which provided an international blueprint to regulate cigarette smoke and recommended the introduction of controls on two of the most dangerous carcinogens.

“The report found these compounds (nitrosamines) can be substantially removed from the cigarette because they occur during the process of curing tobacco,” Dr Gray said.

The US Government is considering the WHO recommendations and has a bill before Congress that would empower its Food and Drug Administration to regulate cigarette emissions.

kangeroo.GIFDr Gray said Australia should do the same.

But federal Minister for the Ageing Christopher Pyne said the Federal Government had banned all tobacco advertising and spent millions of dollars on education.

“For the Government to regulate the contents of cigarettes or to regulate products like the heatbar would undermine the message that all cigarettes are harmful and that quitting is the only option to avoid smoking-related illnesses. This is the approach we will continue to take,” Mr Pyne said.

Cancer Council spokeswoman Anita Tang said a failure to act was an implicit endorsement of cigarettes.

Philip Morris also supported the push for the contents of cigarettes to be regulated, despite opposition from other manufacturers.

Last night, Philip Morris spokeswoman Nerida White said: “We agree that the Australian Government should set in train a process of tobacco regulation, as is being discussed in the bill in the US Congress.”

Ms White said all cigarette manufacturers should be required to disclose the contents of their products.

Source: Cameron Houston, The Age (Australia)

Click to learn more about > carcinogens.

Tobacco & the Rheumatoid Factor

The journal Arthritis and Rheumatism puts in evidence that tobacco might cause a genetic reaction which conducts to serious forms of arthritis rheumatoid.

This type of arthritis can be quite painful and often greatly impedes one’s flexibility.

There is a lot of research being done to help ease the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but one sure way is to stop smoking and begin a detoxification program now.

A case is built that tobacco increases the production of the so-called rheumatoid factor.

(RF) and decreases the levels of the GSTM1 gene.

This is important to note because body detoxification is your body’s immune response clearing out foreign substances from your body’s system.

rh.jpgThe GSTM1 is a gene which is important in the detoxification process of the carcinogen agents presented in tobacco.

Seven Reasons to Stop Smoking

Do you smoke?

Thinking of quitting?

Discovery Health lists seven reasons why you should quit smoking right now.

Don’t wait another minute, read this list now, and really think about these seven reasons.

If not just for yourself, think of how you are effecting your loved ones.

They might just persuade you ditch the smokes before it’s too late…

seven.jpg1. You smell pretty bad
Bad breath and body odor, sallow skin, smelly clothes, yellow teeth – what’s not to love? Maybe it is time stub it out.

2. Food doesn’t taste as good
Smoking can permanently harm your sense of smell, which in turns affects your tasting experience. This can be reversible, but you do run the risk of permanent damage to this sensory experience.

3. More time in hospital
The carcinogens released when you light up gives you a better chance to develop cancer of the mouth, lung and throat, and your basic flu easily turns into bronchitis or pneumonia. You are more likely to spend some quality time with healthcare professionals than a non-smoker.

4. Your body ages faster
Want to look nine years older than you actually are? Then have a cigarette, don’t exercise too much and just for good measure add a bit of weight to your frame. The good news is that it is reversible. If you stop smoking, do some mild exercise and lose the weight, you can look and also feel younger than your actual age.

5. Smoking harms your children
Smoking during pregnancy can lower your child’s IQ and lead to low birth weight, still births, miscarriages, birth defects such as cleft lip and sudden infant death syndrome (cot death). Cigarette smoke contains an estimated 4000 chemicals, with nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide thought to be the most dangerous to the fetus.

6. You have to exercise harder
Your lungs aren’t operating at full volume due to the tar and increased levels of carbon monoxide in your lungs. This poisonous gas is quickly absorbed into the blood, reducing its capacity to carry oxygen. As a result, the smoker has to exert more physical effort to attain a given task than does a non-smoker. The heart in particular must work harder, particularly during rigorous exercise. Increased levels of carbon monoxide in the blood can impair vision, perception of time, and co-ordination.

7. You can pass risks onto your kids
Like father like son… Most children of smokers will take up the habit as well or suffer the consequences of second-hand smoke.

National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems Teleconference Notes

The following information is a the Position Statement on Smoking Policy and Treatment at State Operated Psychiatric Hospitals.

Silently and insidiously tobacco sales and tobacco smoking became an accepted way of life not only in our society, but also in our public mental health treatment facilities.

Revenue from sales of tobacco provides discretionary income for facilities. Smoke breaks became an “entitlement,” deserved and protected, and are one of the only times consumers can practice relating to each other and staff in a “normalized” way.

When, what, and how much to smoke are often the only choices consumers make as inpatients, reinforcing cigarette use by virtue of the autonomy it appears to allow. More troubling, cigarettes used as positive/negative reinforcement by staff to control consumer behavior.

Logo ImageWhile taking seriously and treating illicit drug use by those with mental illness for some time, a substance far more deadly and pervasive, and used disproportionately by this population, has largely been ignored. And now, a few words about tobacco. It Kills. And, it kills those with mental illness disproportionately and earlier, as the leading contributor of disease and early death in this population.

A preponderance of evidence has clearly established the deleterious health effects of tobacco smoking and second hand or environmental tobacco smoke. Science as well as experiences in mental health facilities have also shown that tobacco smoking leads to negative outcomes for mental health treatment, the treatment milieu, overall wellness and, ultimately, recovery.

Smoking promotes coercion and violence in facilities among patients and between patients and staff. It occupies a surprising amount of staff and patient’s time that could be better used for more productive activities.

It is a poor substitute for practice in decision-making and relationship building and is inappropriate as a means to manage behavior within the treatment milieu. And, while smoking can be framed as the one – choice consumers get to make while inpatients, and a personal – choice for staff, it is critical to realize that addiction is not a choice. But, quitting smoking is.

While smoking has become more socially unacceptable and prevalence has decreased in the general population, much needs to be done to assist those with mental illness to quit. Currently, 59% of public mental health facilities allow smoking. If we agree that the goal shared by consumer and physician for mental health is recovery and that health and wellness is an integral part of that recovery, the issue of tobacco use in our facilities cannot be ignored.

As individuals committed to supporting health, wellness and recovery, and entrusted with the care and management of consumers and staff in our facilities and of limited public funds, we must act on what we know. Therefore, NASMHPD stands against tobacco and will take assertive steps to stop its use in the public mental health system.

As physicians, we commit to educating individuals about the effects of tobacco and facilitating and supporting their ability to manage their own physical wellness.

We will practice the 5 A’s; ASKING individuals about tobacco use, ADVISING users to quit, ASSESSING their readiness to make a quit attempt, ASSISTING with that attempt and ARRANGING follow-up care.

As administrators, we will commit the leadership and resources necessary to create smoke free systems of care, provide adequate planning, time and training for staff to implement new policies and procedures, and ensure access to adequate and appropriate medical and psychosocial cessation treatment for consumers and staff alike.

As partners in the recovery process, we will work with national organizations and decision makers, public and private service providers, and other support systems to ensure that those who want to be tobacco free have access to continued cessation treatment and support in the community.

Health and wellness is a shared responsibility. NASMHPD is committed to doing their part to assist individuals in going tobacco free and will continue to advocate for those with mental illness in their right and hope to be well in recovery.

Approved by the NASMHPD Membership on July 10, 2006

In a health care system:

  • Figure out who smokes
  • Educate staff
  • Integrate smoking cessation into mental health tx
  • Be attentive to co morbidity, make facility smoke-free to protect pts, families, staff

Smoke Free Facilities

50% of psychiatric facilities in the U.S. are now smoke-free, with approx 1 added each month.

SSM Health Care (21 Hospitals in 4 states) became totally smoke free (indoors and outdoors) in 2004.

Outcomes:

  • Number of behavioral health outpts identified as non-smokers increased by 20% after 5 months
  • Number of behavioral health inpts identified as non-smokers increased by 7%
  • Additional inpatient benefits:
  • Former smoking areas freed up space for alternate use
  • Daily chore of managing pt smoking, arguments about smoke break times and
    access to cigarettes, all disappeared
  • Census and pt satisfaction remained stable
  • Staff satisfaction increased because all the limit-setting regarding cigarettes was
    no longer an issue
  • Pt violence decreased on inpatient units without tobacco available.

From The National Association of Psychiatric Hospital Systems, July, 2007

  • The data is simply too compelling re: loss of life and function to continue to ignore the issues of smoking and mental illness any longer. This is a leadership issue as much as a policy and practice issue.
  • We must address staff-related smoking prevalence and quitting. Otherwise, culture change will not occur.

Banning smoking in psychiatric hospitals actually reduces mayhem. Facilities that do not allow smoking report fewer incidents of seclusion and restraint and a reduction in coercion and threats among patients and staff.

EMPLOYER BENEFITS of investing in a smoke-free workforce:

  • Health care costs are 40% higher for smokers than nonsmokers.
  • Smokers are absent from work 26% more often than non-smokers.
  • Smokers cost a company drug plan about twice as much as employees who do not smoke.

Additional teleconference notes:

There are approximately 438,000 tobacco-related deaths in the US each year. 44% of all cigarettes smoked are smoked by people who also suffer from mental illness and/or substance abuse. In contrast, only 102,000 will die from drugs and alcohol.

Psychiatric patients who smoke have 7X the heart disease rate and 7X the suicide rate of psychiatric patients who don’t smoke.

One third to one half of mentally ill smokers will die from smoking.

Tobacco companies have targeted poor, mentally ill, minorities with fewer resources. Sub Culture Urban Marketing (SCUM)

The number of cigarettes a person smokes a day directly correlates with an increased lifetime risk of developing Major Depression.

9% (approx. 40,000) of tobacco-related deaths are from second-hand smoke alone. This is nearly as many who die in the U.S. from motor vehicle accidents, and twice as many from drugs (other than alcohol). The Surgeon General’s most recent report states that there is no safe level of exposure to second-hand smoke.

8.6 million people become disabled each year in the US from tobacco.

The smoke, tar, and additives are what kill people. The nicotine just hooks them.

JCAHO is requiring that hospitals and both inpatient and outpt settings be conducive to quitting.

There are 11 PROVEN human carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

Fifty more are not yet proven, but suspected.

None of these are the nicotine itself, but the nicotine is what is addictive.

20.9% of adults smoke in the general population.

75% of those with addictions or mental illness smoke. 70% of people who smoke want to quit, including
the mental health population.

30-35% of the staff in mental health settings smoke.

35% people with panic disorder smoke

49% with depression smoke

80% with EOTH dependence smoke

88% with schizophrenia/bipolar disorder smoke

Depressed smokers have higher suicide rates than depressed non-smokers. People with any psychiatric disorder who smoke have 7X the rate of heart disease AND 7X the suicide rate than similar patients who don’t smoke.

Smokers have greater anxiety and panic than non-smokers. Heavy smoking in adolescence increases risk of later developing agoraphobia, GAD, panic disorder, increased risk of relapse during quit attempt.

Alcoholics have an increased urge to drink when they smell cigarettes.

People with serious mental illness die 25 years earlier than the general population, mostly from smoking, obesity, substance abuse, and inadequate access to medical care.

Smokers with schizophrenia spend more than one-quarter of their total income on cigarettes.

Smoking affects blood levels of psychotropic drugs. It can increase medication metabolism, so higher doses are needed when smoking, with greater potential for adverse effects. Doses may need to be lowered when pts quit, increased if pts start again.

There is increasing evidence that nicotine dependence treatment does not hurt recovery from mental illness or substance abuse and may improve outcomes. A short hospital stay is an opportunity to educate, give tools.

To TX Smoking Cessation and Depression

  • NRT (nic replacement therapy) alone is insufficient
  • SSRI’s alone have no benefit for smoking cessation but can reduce chance of depression during quit
    attempt, can be combined with Bupropion, NRT, and Varenicline
  • Bupropion can be used as monotherapy for both dx’s, can be combined with varenicline, tx may need
    to extend beyond usual 3-6 months.
  • Adding CBT has had mixed results.

*Anxiety and Smoking Cessation

  • SSRI’s alone have no benefit for smoking cessation but can reduce chance of anxiety or panic during
    quit attempt.
  • Bupropion not appropriate as monotherapy, but can be combined with NRT and Varenicline.

PTSD

  • Bupropion tolerated and effective

*Alcohol Dependence

  • Standard cessation treatments are effective.
  • No evidence of increased use of other substances during cessation treatment.
  • Alcohol abstinence days are greatest for those who quit smoking.
  • Alcoholics who smoke are 10X more likely to develop pancreatitis, have a 3X greater risk of
    cirrhosis,and are at greater risk of severe brain damage associated with alcohol dependence.
    Continued smoking diminishes recuperation from alcohol-related cognitive defecits during alcohol
    abstinence.

*Cessation for Shizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

  • Traditional cessation treatments may be inadequate.
  • Harm reduction and NRT
  • Hospitalization may be unique opportunities to initiate tx.
  • Bupropion can lead to quit rates comparable with general population.
  • Quit rates enhanced with CBT
  • Overall symptoms not worsened.

Resistance to Smoking Cessation for People with Mental Illness

  • Loved ones resist helping them quit
  • They feel protective and want to focus on quality, not quantity of life
  • But diseases caused by smoking can severely hamper quality as well as quantity of life
  • And second-hand smoke imperils loved ones and workers

Barriers to Successful Smoking Cessation

  • Provider inattention/pessimism
  • Belief that smoking cessation will adversely affect SA/MH tx
  • Co-dependency and mental illness
  • Mental health staff smoke
  • Historic attitudes about smoking in mental health community
  • No coverage for cessation drugs
  • Improper use of the drugs
  • Ignorance of quitlines 1-800-QUIT NOW
  • Lack of knowledge or risks/current research
  • Centuries-old split between treating the mind “vs.” the body
  • Social isolation of the mentally ill
  • Recovery from mental illness a relatively new concept
  • Historical use of cigarettes as behavior modification/control/reward/distraction/coping in psychiatric
    settings
  • Clash of emerging sense of inappropriateness of health care settings encouraging/permitting smoking
  • Mental health typically lagging behind other innovations and technologies in health care
  • Different agencies, funding, reimbursement (state Medicaid plans reimburse for smoking cessation; most
    private insurers don’t.)
  • Historical lack of research data (though current research demonstrates that quitting smoking does NOT
    jeopardize recovery and in fact leads to 25% greater chance of success in recovery)

Benefits From Treating Tobacco Dependence

  • Reduced morbity
  • 25% greater chance of abstinence from other substances (continued smoking identified as a factor in
    relapse to active substance abuse)
  • Reduce financial burden
  • Increase self-confidence
  • Increase focus on mental health and wellness
  • Remember that about half of smokers who want to quit will die from smoking.
  • If the cessation rate could increase to even just 10%, 1.2 million additional lives would be saved. No
    other health intervention could make such a huge difference!
  • Tobacco use negatively impacts other psychosocial issues that challenge clients in recovery: finances,
    health, HIV status, pregnancy, children’s health, treatment compliance, medications, dealing with
    feelings, social stigma

NEW DEVELOPMENTS
The National Partnership on Wellness and Smoking Cessation
Members:
NAPHS (National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems)
NASMHPD (National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors) See their tool kit “Tobacco
Free Living in Psychiatric Settings
http://www.nasmhpd.org/general_files/publications/NASMHPD.toolkit.FINAL.pdf

NAMI (National Alliance on Mental Illness). Read Position Statement section 7.3
http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentGroups/Policy/Public_Policy_Platform_April_07_marked.pdf
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance
NASW (National Association of Social Workers)
+ approx. 20 other organizations and growing
Smoking Cessation Leadership Center Mental Health section web site:
http://smokingcessationleadership.ucsf.edu/Presentation07/NASMHPBHealth.pdf


Notes from Sally Caltrider [Retreath Healthcare, Brattleboro, VT]
Conference: July 26, 2007]

Passive Smoking Happens to Pets Too

Fluffy, Fido, and Tweety all suffer from the secondhand smoke of their owners, according to a growing body of literature that has looked at the issue, said Carolynn MacAllister, a veterinarian with the Oklahoma State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Cats are twice as likely to develop malignant melanoma if they live with smokers as with nonsmokers.

This form of cancer kills three out of four felines within a year of its onset. Cats also are more likely to develop mouth cancers.

MacAllister said that cats’ grooming habits contribute to their risk. “Cats constantly lick themselves while grooming, they lick up the cancer-causing carcinogens that accumulate on their fur” and deposit relatively high concentrations of those chemicals into their mouths.

Dog with Face MaskLong nosed dogs suffer higher rates of nasal cancers as the carcinogens accumulate along those mucus membrane passageways. They seldom survive more than a year. In contrast, short nosed dogs do not filter the carcinogens as effectively, as a result, more of those deadly chemicals reach their lungs and they are more likely to develop lung cancer.

And feathered pets are not immune either. “A bird’s respiratory system is hypersensitive to any type of pollutant in the air,” MacAllister said. Living with a smoker makes birds particularly vulnerable to pneumonia and lung cancer. That is particularly true because caged birds cannot engage in vigorous flying that helps to clear the lungs of toxins.

“Curious pets can eat cigarettes and other tobacco products if they aren’t stored properly.” MacAllister warned. “This can cause nicotine poisoning, which can be fatal.”

Smokers themselves are 50 percent more likely to develop dementia than nonsmokers, according to a recent study of 7,000 people 55 or older that was conducted over seven years in the Netherlands.

“Smoking increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease and oxidative stress, which can damage cells in the blood vessels and lead to hardening of the arteries,” said lead researcher Dr. Monique Breteler of the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam.

Erectile dysfunction is a more immediate risk from smoking. A four-year study of 7,684 men in China, ages 35-74, found a statistical link between the number of cigarettes smoked and ED. It estimated that almost a quarter of all ED could be attributed to cigarettes.

And the habit is expensive, even before figuring in the added cost of Viagra. A study from New York City estimates that the average pack-a-day smoker burns up $2,500 a year with their habit.

It showed that low-income persons are more likely to try to quit smoking than those with a high income (68 versus 60 percent), but they are less likely to succeed in doing so.

Many private health plans and local health departments have developed programs to help people quite smoking. They often include free or reduced rates for counseling sessions and interventions such as nicotine gum or the patch.

For information about programs in San Francisco, visit the Tobacco Free Project’s Web site at http://sftfc.globalink.org/. For information statewide, call 1-800-NO-BUTTS. ~

Click to learn more about > Melanoma

~Bob Roehr, The Bay Area Reporter