Tag Archives: Smoking Facts

Teens Who Smoke Truly are Acting Brainless

Parents now have another reason to worry about their children smoking.

Nicotine might cause the teenage brain to develop abnormally, resulting in changes to the structure of white matter — the neural tissue through which signals are relayed.

Teenagers who smoke, or whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, are also more likely to suffer from auditory attention deficits, meaning they find it harder to concentrate on what is being said when other things are happening at the same time.

Leslie Jacobsen of Yale University School of Medicine and colleagues used diffusion tensor imaging, which measures how water diffuses through brain tissue, to study the brains of 33 teenagers whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy. Twenty-five of the teens were daily smokers. The team also studied 34 teens whose mothers had not smoked, of whom 14 were daily smokers.

Both prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke were associated with changes in white matter in brain pathways that relay signals to the ear.

The changes were greatest in teenagers who smoked, suggesting the brain is particularly vulnerable to the effects of nicotine during adolescence, when many neural pathways are maturing (Journal of Neuroscience).Recently, Jacobsen’s team reported that prenatal and teenage exposure to smoke were associated with reduced auditory and visual attention, with boys being particularly vulnerable to auditory deficits.

In such boys, “the levels of disruption are significant enough that if you were already struggling at school it could tip you towards school failure,” Jacobsen says. She now hopes to test whether the changes are reversible, by scanning the brains of teenagers who give up smoking.

David McAlpine, director of the Ear Institute at University College London, says the findings are interesting because the key brain pathway affected by nicotine helps determine how we process auditory information when distracted by other tasks. “The fact that smokers show changes in this pathway means they may be less able to hear what’s being said,” he says.

Symbol for Not Using Your BrainNicotine binds to receptors in the brain that regulate neural development. Inappropriate stimulation could cause abnormal connections to form, says Jacobsen. Such misconnections are already thought to affect babies exposed to nicotine before birth, but this goes further:

“The new findings show that there is a downstream effect on white matter — the magnitude of which is pretty remarkable,” says Richard Todd at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri. “It seems the brain remains vulnerable long into adolescence.”

Source: Linda Geddes, New Scientist Magazine

Is Fear of Gaining Weight Keeping Many Women from Trying to Quit Smoking?

[UMHS-Press Release]

Women and Smoking

Smokers are more likely to have unrealistic body image & eating problems, and women who had weight problems as girls are more likely to start smoking early.

Is a fear of getting fatter partly to blame for the fact that nearly one in five American women still smokes, and many don’t try to quit?

Although there are many possible reasons for the stubborn persistence of smoking, fear of weight gain is high on the list for many women, says a University of Michigan Health System researcher who has devoted much of her career to studying this issue.

Although there are many possible reasons for the stubborn persistence of smoking, fear of weight gain is high on the list for many women, says a University of Michigan Health System researcher who has devoted much of her career to studying this issue.

weight.jpgSeveral years ago, she and her team reported that 75 percent of all women smokers say they would be unwilling to gain more than five pounds if they were to quit smoking, and nearly half said they would not tolerate any weight gain. In fact, many women started smoking in the first place because they thought it might help them stay slim.

Now, new U-M research findings published in the October issue of Addictive Behaviors show that women who smoke tend to be further from their ideal body image, and more prone to dieting and binging, than those who don’t smoke.

Cigarettes are well known to suppress appetite and weight, says Cindy Pomerleau, Ph.D., director of the U-M Nicotine Research Laboratory. “So it’s hardly surprising that women who have trouble managing their weight or are dissatisfied with their bodies are drawn to smoking,” she says.

In another recent study, published in August, the U-M team found that overweight women smokers who were overweight as children were far more likely to have started smoking in their early teens than women whose weight problems started later in life. They also had worse withdrawal symptoms when they tried to quit.

Once they make a serious attempt to quit, evidence suggests that most weight-concerned smokers can be just as successful in kicking the habit as others.

“The problem here is getting women who are concerned about their weight to be willing to try to make a quit attempt,” says Pomerleau, “and then helping them gain a sense of control over their weight.”

Women who are highly concerned about weight tend to be concerned about other aspects of their appearance as well, she notes. What they need to understand, she says, is that smoking has an impact on many aspects of appearance and attractiveness. Among other things, it causes wrinkled skin, thinning hair, cracked fingernails, yellowed teeth and terrible breath.

Pomerleau, a research professor of psychiatry, is working on a book about women, smoking and weight loss that will draw together research findings, helpful tips and real-life examples of women who quit tobacco while also containing their weight.

Some beliefs about smoking and weight are true, she says. For instance, nicotine suppresses the appetite and increases resting metabolic rate. Smokers on average weigh less than people who have never smoked, and that smokers who quit tend to gain weight. Adding to these perceptions are tobacco advertisements that portray female smokers as slim and successful.

Even so, the effect of quitting on weight is often less dramatic than many women fear, Pomerleau says. A rough rule of thumb is that one in four women who quit smoking will gain less than five pounds, and another two out of four will gain five to 15 pounds. Only one in four women who quit will gain 15 pounds or more.

But Pomerleau’s own research suggests that many women smokers start out with an unrealistic image of how they would like their bodies to look. This may make their dread of gaining weight even worse.

In her paper in Addictive Behaviors, she reports the results of a study of 587 women between the ages of 18 and 55, including 420 smokers and 167 women who had never smoked. An equal proportion of both groups was overweight or obese, with a body mass index of 25 or more.

In the study, the smokers and non-smokers were asked to look at silhouette pictures of 10 different body types, ranging from thinnest to fattest, and to choose which one their current body type was closest to, and which one they wanted to look most like. They were also asked questions about their self-image and their eating habits, about how concerned they were about gaining weight if they quit smoking, and about how sure they were that they could stay off cigarettes even if they gained weight.

The smokers chose an ideal body shape that was slimmer than the non-smokers chose, and further from how they perceived themselves as looking. They also had more problems with limiting their eating. Smokers who were overweight were especially doubtful about their ability to stay off tobacco if they started to gain weight.

This study, Pomerleau says, suggests that if women smokers are to succeed in quitting, they may need extra help in achieving a more realistic body image and paying attention to unhealthful eating patterns, particularly if they are already overweight.

At the same time, Pomerleau and her team have found that the earlier in life a weight problem starts, the more likely a woman is to start smoking.

In a study of 89 overweight women smokers, those who remembered being overweight before they reached junior high school reported that they had started experimenting with smoking at around age 13 – compared with women whose weight problems didn’t start until junior high or after, who hadn’t tried smoking till they reached age 15.

The women who were overweight as children also reported more nicotine-withdrawal symptoms when they tried to quit smoking, especially symptoms like anger, irritability and trouble concentrating. The study was published in the August issue of Eating Behaviors.

These studies, and others that the U-M team have done, all point to the importance of finding new strategies to help women quit smoking without losing control of their weight. Although severe dieting during a smoking cessation attempt has not been shown to be helpful in either quitting smoking or controlling weight, it may be unrealistic to expect women with strong weight concerns to put these concerns on hold for several weeks or months while they try to quit tobacco.

“What we would like to work for is a kind of compromise strategy, where the focus is on the smoking cessation, but women can also take some passive and active measures to control their weight,” Pomerleau says.

Passive measures include things like nicotine patches and gum, and medicines like bupropion, which can help in controlling weight gain while keeping nicotine withdrawal symptoms at bay.

Another option for women is to launch their stop-smoking effort early in their menstrual cycle, so that the bloating that can happen soon after they snuff out their last cigarette won’t be compounded by the bloating that comes along right before their period begins.

Finally, although strenuous dieting is not recommended, Pomerleau says, women can start immediately to rebalance the energy-in/energy-out equation by not substituting eating for smoking, and by increasing their physical activity. Even brief bouts of exercise, such as stretching or walking, can be effective in distracting a woman when the urge to smoke strikes, she says, and they burn a few calories too.

Facts About Smoking and Health

  • Smoking damages a woman’s hair, skin, nails, teeth, voice and more.
  • Smoking causes lung problems, including lung cancer, which kills far more women than any other form of cancer including breast cancer.
  • Smoking increases the chance of heart disease and stroke, the number one and number three killers of women.
  • Smoking can reduce a woman’s fertility, making it harder to get pregnant.
  • Smoking can cause abnormal growth of cells in the cervix, a condition known as cervical dysplasia that can lead to cervical cancer.
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the chance that a woman will miscarry or experience pregnancy problems, and increases the chance that her baby will suffer problems.
  • Quitting smoking often leads to weight gain, but three-quarters of women who quit will gain 15 pounds or less.
  • Quitting smoking is one of the most important things a person can do to improve their health now and in the future. Once a smoker has quit, the harm that smoking has done to their body will stop and even start to reverse. In fact, within 15 years of quitting smoking, death rates for ex-smokers are the same as for people of the same age who have never smoked.

U-M Health Minute: Today’s top health issues and medical research
Written by Kara Gavin

Learn more on the web or by phone at:
The American Lung Association: Freedom from SmokingAmerican Cancer Society Stop-smoking help, and information on the Nov. 15 Great American Smokeout, or call 1-800-ACS-2345

Smokefree.gov:
A web site for Americans who want to quit smoking, from the National Cancer Institute or call 800-QUITNOW   Hearing impaired: TTY 1-800-332-8615

U-M Nicotine Research Laboratory

Study references:
Addictive Behaviors, Volume 32, Issue 10, October 2007, pp. 2329-2334
Eating Behaviors, Volume 8, Issue 3, August 2007, pp. 418-422

Effects of Smoking on Circulation Can Lead to Amputations

Smoking effects our health in so many ways.

Just how does smoking addiction hurt you?

Narrowed and hardened arteries leading to atherosclerosis and gangrene, cold hands and feet, cold skin, decreased fitness, weakened bones,osteoporosis, peripheral vascular disease to name a few.

Smoking damages the blood vessels in the legs and arms leading to restricted circulation, ulcers, gangrene and even amputation of the limbs.

Circulation Restricted From SmokingOver 90% of cases of peripheral vascular disease which lead to amputation of one or both legs are caused by nicotine addiction and smoking – about 2000 amputations a year in the UK.

Source: Nosmokingday.org (UK)

Women Smokers Grow More Facial Hair

The effects of smoking can show up in ways you may not expect.

Although the mustache on the women in this picture is obviously fake, what we are about to tell you isn’t.

The Medical College of Wisconsin has reported a link between smoking and increased facial hair in some women.

Girl with Fake Moustache Women who smoke at least one pack of cigarettes a day have a fifty percent greater chance of growing more facial hair.

This study at the Medical College of Wisconsin has found increased facial hair in women apparently has something to do with the effects of smoking on the ovaries and the production of hormones.

So if you are a women smoker and find you are growing more facial hair as you age you could be adversely effecting your hormonal balance due to the risks of ingesting the chemicals in cigarettes.

Cigarette Smoking and the Human Spine

Smoking effects the flow of blood throughout our bodies.

There are only two structures in the adult human body which, under normal circumstances, lack a blood supply in adult life.

One, the cornea of the eye which gets its nutrition from tears.

Secondly, the intervertebral disc, which obtains its nutrition from the convection and diffusion of nutrients from the end plates of adjacent vertebral bodies.

Picture of the SpineBy smoking cigarettes, nicotine and carbon monoxide infuse into the blood stream and then into body tissues.

These poisons have a particularly destructive effect on intervertebral discs (and corneas) because of their precarious nutritional status.

Read the rest of the Burton Report here > Smoking Cigarettes Effects on the Human Spine

Smoking Cigarettes Effects on Lung Health

Every time you inhale smoke from a cigarette, you kill some of the alveoli, or the air sacks in your lungs.

These air sacks are where the oxygen that you breathe in is transferred into your blood.

The alveoli will not grow back.

So if you destroy them, you permanently have destroyed part of your lungs.

Alveoli Lung Air Sacks ImageSmoking paralyzes the cilia that line your lungs.

Cilia are little hair like structures that move back and forth to sweep particles out of your lungs. When you smoke, the cilia can not move and can not do their job.

So dust, pollen, and other things that you inhale they sit in your lungs and build up.

Also, there are a lot of particles in smoke that get into your lungs. Since your cilia are paralyzed because of the smoke and can not clean them out, the particles sit in your lungs and form tar.

Smoke and Mirrors

Although the new Camel No. 9 cigarette’s manufacturer seeks to entice women with flavor and style, Sandy Hornung, 62, Olathe, said there is nothing glamorous about smoking-related cancer.

“I’m amazed. I saw this young woman smoking today and I just kind of looked at her like, ‘Are you crazy?'” Hornung said.

When diagnosed with Stage 3 lung cancer at age 37, Hornung said knowing she might die became frightening. Hornung said she started smoking at 18.

American Cancer Society statistics show 90 percent of adult smokers became addicts by age 18.

Photo of camel PackHornung dealt with hair loss and vomiting during chemotherapy and radiation. As far as the Camel No. 9 campaign, Hornung said people need to decide what they want.

“I’m sure seeing that they may think it’s sophisticated to smoke,” Hornung said. “I think it would be nice (if) they wouldn’t allow it. It comes down to the fact that people have to make their own choices.”

Camel No. 9 comes wrapped in sleek black and fuchsia or black and teal packaging. Heavy cardstock ads in women’s magazines such as Glamour and Cosmopolitan feature delicate flowers and boast about No. 9’s “light and luscious” flavors.

R.J. Reynolds spokesman David Howard, Winston-Salem, N.C., said company leaders held focus group sessions in early 2006 with about 2,000 women smokers to discuss the new cigarette.

“We came up with Camel No. 9 in response to female adult smokers who are asking for a product that better reflects their taste and style,” Howard said. “Ninety-five percent marked it as ‘a product for me.'”
Howard said R.J.

Reynolds wants to expand beyond male smokers. “Camel was underdeveloped with women,” Howard said. “We wanted the opportunity to grow the share of the market amongst adult female smokers.” According to R.J. Reynolds data, 19 million out of 20 million women smokers do not smoke Camels.

“They are smoking a competitor’s brand,” Howard said. “We wanted to come up with a concept that would be clearly, responsibly marketed to that audience.”

Company leaders decided the name Camel No. 9 “evokes positive images.”

“We thought it was very classy,” Howard said. “Like ‘dressed to the nines,’ an image that adult smokers identify with.”

Howard said the campaign does not target underage females.

“We have no interest in communicating to anyone but adult smokers,” Howard said.

In a society where one in five women smokes, Camel’s promotion of No. 9 outrages some health experts, including Kansas City American Heart Association Executive Director Nicole Stuke.

“Tobacco use remains the single most preventable cause of death in the United States,” Stuke said. “With more than 178,000 women dying every year from smoking-related diseases, it’s unsettling that the tobacco industry feels the need to recruit more people to consume their harmful products.

Tactics like these underscore the need for Congress to grant the FDA authority to regulate tobacco products in much the same way they regulate other consumer products on the market.”

Camel No. 9 marketing concerns anti-tobacco lobbyists, including Campaign for Tobacco-free Kids Outreach Director Victoria Almquist, Washington.

“I bought a pack to show the women in my office and they kept saying how beautiful it was,” Almquist said. “It really does look like a box for Chanel perfume. It struck me as very clever marketing and I could see how this would be appealing to young women.”

Almquist called the tobacco company’s appeal to young women and children deplorable.

“Our studies show that most advertising done for Camel No. 9 is point of sale, which means that convenience stores are saturated with pictures and displays for Camel No. 9,” Almquist said. “We found out that 75 percent of teens visit a convenience store once a week; adults don’t go into convenience stores as much as kids do. Point of sale marketing really gets to teens.”

Almquist said she got a call from an alarmed parent who looked through a package her daughter received in the mail. The parent thought the package contained skin care product samples but instead contained a Camel No. 9 promotional kit complete with an offer for a free pack of cigarettes.

Besides direct mail, Camel No. 9 promoters have appealed to women by throwing spa nights and ladies nights at dance clubs. Spa nights included manicures, facials and goody bags.

The Federal Trade Commission reported the company has spent almost $50 million to market the cigarette.

“The tobacco industry targeting women is nothing new,” Almquist said. “It started in the ’30s where they had the ‘Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet’ ads in magazines. Those ads were horrifying.”

Almquist said the government exempts tobacco products from basic health regulations that apply to other products, such as food, drugs and dog food.

“We’re working on bills in the House and the Senate to push for regulation,” Almquist said. “Historically, tobacco products are not regulated products. You know your lipstick and dog food and know what it contains. (Tobacco companies) can change their ingredients all the time and don’t have to tell anyone.”

Almquist said people should write their legislators about how tobacco companies target women.

Rebecca Flann, 23, Overland Park, said she believes the new cigarette targets young women such as herself.

“The way it’s packaged, they are obviously trying to get women to think it’s cool and sophisticated,” Flann said.

After trying Camel No. 9, Flann said she considered the taste lighter than other cigarettes but did not want to buy them.

“I don’t really care about the way it looks that much. A cigarette is a cigarette,” Flann, a smoker, said.

Gino Hernandez, employee at the 125th Street and Quivira Road Phillips 66, said Camel No. 9 sales have roller-coastered.

“They started off really good,” Hernandez said. “We sold about six or seven cartons a week during the first month, but it’s died down.”

Hernandez said a “mainly younger crowd” purchases the cigarettes.

Decloud Studio employee Dayna Schroeder said the cigarette tastes good.

“I like the Turkish tobacco flavor,” Schroeder said. “It’s a lighter taste than Marlboro Lights.”

Schroeder said she would not purchase cigarettes based on looks, but she understands how the packaging appeals to young women.

“I can see how some women may be affected by it,” Schroeder said. “(The packaging) will catch your eye. I’m always drawn to Camel because of the images and I’ve tried the different flavors.”

Tobacco products and women make an unhealthy combination, University of Kansas Medical Center physician Charles Porter said.

“Smoking takes a toll on the entire reproductive process,” Porter said. “There’s an amazing array of bad things that happen to your body when you smoke.

“Smoking reduces placental blood flow and directly damages the infant’s lungs.”

Porter said studies show the death rate for infants becomes three or four times higher when women smoke during and after pregnancy.

He said exposing an infant to secondhand smoke “doubles the risk that the baby will die.”

Hornung said she wished people knew how smoking affects their health.

“I would want them to know that it can happen to them,” Hornung said. “It causes circulation problems and various kinds of cancers. I think the best advice is to never start smoking. It is very addictive behavior.”

Cancer is one of several smoking-related diseases.

“For women, the cancer most associated with smoking is cervical,” Porter said. “Men and women both can get lung and bladder cancer as well as leukemia from smoking.”

Porter said smoking facts contrast with beautiful women featured in advertisements.

“Studies have also shown that premature wrinkles on the face and all over the body can be caused by smoking,” Porter said. “When people smoke, the aging process is accelerated. People can look 20 years older than they are because of it.”

Although cancer-free now, Hornung said cancer changed her life completely and she credits her family, friends and M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston for her survival.

Almquist said the debate about marketing a disease-causing product will exist as long as the tobacco industry exists.

“Women should be outraged by this. Everyone should be,” Almquist said.

Source: Holly Kramer, Shawnee/Lenexa Sun

Smoking Effects on Your Body

There are over 60 known cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke.

While nicotine itself isn’t thought to be carcinogenic, the highly addictive drug is toxic and potentially lethal in large doses

Apart from its use in tobacco products, nicotine is a scheduled poison under the Therapeutic Goods Act.

Along with nicotine, smokers also inhale about 4,000 other chemicals. Many of these compounds are chemically active and trigger profound and damaging changes in the body.

Smoking harms nearly every organ in the body, causing many diseases and reducing health in general.

Picture of Lungs

Tobacco smoke contains dangerous chemicals. The most damaging compounds in tobacco smoke include:

Tar: This is the collective term for all the various particles suspended in tobacco smoke. The particles contain chemicals including several cancer-causing substances. Tar is sticky and brown and stains teeth, fingernails and lung tissue. Tar contains the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene that is known to trigger tumor development (cancer).

Carbon monoxide: This odorless gas is fatal in large doses because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Each red blood cell contains a complicated protein called haemoglobin; oxygen molecules are transported around the body by binding to, or hanging onto, this protein.

However, carbon monoxide has a greater affinity than oxygen for binding to haemoglobin. This means that the heart of a smoker has to work much harder to get enough oxygen to the brain, heart, muscles and other organs.

Hydrogen cyanide: The lungs contain tiny hairs (cilia) that help to clean the lungs by moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide stops this lung clearance system from working properly, which means the poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke can build up inside the lungs.

Other chemicals in smoke that damage the lungs include hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, organic acids, phenols and oxidizing agents.

Free radicals: These highly reactive chemicals can damage the heart muscles and blood vessels. They react with cholesterol, leading to the build up of fatty material on artery walls. Their actions lead to heart disease, stroke and blood vessel disease.

Metals: Tobacco smoke contains dangerous metals including arsenic, cadmium and lead. Several of these metals are carcinogenic.

Radioactive compounds: Tobacco smoke contains radioactive compounds, which are known to be carcinogenic.

Effects of Smoking Tobacco on Body Systems

Smoking and the Respiratory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:

  • Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box).
  • Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages.
  • Impairment of the lungs’ clearance system, leading to the build up of poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage.
  • Increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing.
  • Permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.

Smoking Effects on the Circulatory system

The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:

  • Raised blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature.
  • Less oxygen carried by the blood.
  • Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting.
  • Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls).
  • Reduced blood flow to extremities like fingers and toes.
  • Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Cigarettes Effect on the Immune System

The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:

  • The immune system doesn’t work as well and is supressed.
  • The immune system can not keep up with attempting to detox your system while tending other priorities
  • The person is more prone to infections.
  • It takes longer to get over an illness.

Smoking and the Musculoskeletal System

The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:

  • Tightening of certain muscles.
  • Reduced bone density.

Other Effects of Smoking on the Body

Other effects of tobacco smoke on the body include:

  • Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
  • Increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract.
  • Reduced ability to smell and taste.
  • Premature wrinkling of the skin.
  • Higher risk of blindness.
  • Gum disease.

Effects of Tobacco on Men Smokers

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the male body include:

  • Lower sperm count.
  • Higher percentage of deformed sperm.
  • Reduced sperm mobility.
  • Changed levels of male sex hormones.
  • Impotence, which may be due to the effects of smoking on blood flow and damage to the blood vessels of the penis.

Smoking Effects on Women’s Body

The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the female body include:

  • Reduced fertility.
  • Menstrual cycle irregularities or absence of menstruation.
  • Menopause reached one or two years earlier.
  • Increased risk of cancer of the cervix.
  • Greatly increased risk of stroke and heart attack if the smoker is aged over 35 years and taking the oral contraceptive pill.

Smoking Effects on the Fetus

The effects of maternal smoking on an unborn baby include:

  • Increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature birth.
  • Low birth weight, which may have a lasting effect of the growth and development of children. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for early puberty, and in adulthood is an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
  • Increased risk of cleft palate and cleft lip.
  • Paternal smoking can also harm the fetus if the non-smoking mother is exposed to passive smoking.
  • If the mother continues to smoke during her baby’s first year of life, the child has an increased risk of ear infections, respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, croup and bronchitis, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and meningococcal disease.

Diseases Caused by Long Term Smoking

A lifetime smoker is at high risk of developing a range of potentially lethal diseases, including:

  • Cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, voice box, lip, tongue, nasal sinus, oesophagus, throat, pancreas, bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia), kidney, cervix, ureter, liver, bladder and stomach.
  • Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
  • Coronary artery disease, heart disease, heart attack and stroke.
  • Ulcers of the digestive system.
  • Osteoporosis and hip fracture.
  • Poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain, and in severe cases gangrene and amputation.

Source: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au

Fifty-Eight Pack Years

This professor has smoked approximately 21,098 packs of cigarettes up to age seventy.

That is approximately one pack per day for fifty-eight years.

Lungs can recover some of the previous healthy appearance and normal function, depending upon how long and how much the person has smoked.

Of course, the more one smokes, the lower the chances are for recovery.

Medical Professionals base the smoker’s chances for improvement on several factors, but one of the more important factors is known as “Pack Years”(P-Y).

If you multiply the number of packs of cigarettes smoked each day by the number of years the person has been smoking, the result is the “Pack Years”.

For example: Mr “C” is 37 years old and smoked two pack of cigarettes for 19 years. Therefore, Mr “C” has a 38 Pack Year smoking history.

Shelves of CigarettesThis is not good at all! When the “P-Y” number is more than the age of the person, the more likely there is to be damage to the lungs.

http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_entertainment/189793.html

~Richard Mondak, Staff, Physician Assistant, PA Provider Services