Cigarette Ingredients and Composition

By Robbster

Cigarettes look deceptively simple, consisting of paper tubes containing chopped up tobacco leaf, usually with a filter at the mouth end.

In fact, they are highly engineered products, designed to deliver a steady dose of nicotine.

Cigarette tobacco is blended from two main leaf varieties: yellowish ‘bright’, also known as Virginia where it was originally grown, contains 2.5-3% nicotine; and ‘burley’ tobacco which has higher nicotine content (3.5-4%).

US blends also contain up to 10% of imported ‘oriental’ tobacco which is aromatic but relatively low (less than 2%) in nicotine.

In addition to the leaf blend, cigarettes contain ‘fillers’ which are made from the stems and other bits of tobacco, which would otherwise be waste products. These are mixed with water and various flavorings and additives. The ratio of filler varies among brands.

For example, high filler content makes a less dense cigarette with a slightly lower tar delivery. Additives are used to make tobacco products more acceptable to the consumer.

They include humectants (moisturizers) to prolong shelf life; sugars to make the smoke seem milder and easier to inhale; and flavorings such as chocolate and vanilla. While some of these may appear to be quite harmless in their natural form they may be toxic in combination with other substances.

Also when the 600 permitted additives are burned, new products of combustion are formed and these may be toxic.

The nicotine and tar delivery can also be modified by the type of paper used in the cigarette. Using more porous paper will let more air into the cigarette, diluting the smoke and (in theory) reducing the amount of tar and nicotine reaching the smoker’s lungs.

Filters are made of cellulose acetate and trap some of the tar and smoke particles from the inhaled smoke. Filters also cool the smoke slightly, making it easier to inhale. They were added to cigarettes in the 1950s, in response to the first reports that smoking was hazardous to health. Tobacco companies claimed that their filtered brands had lower tar than others and encouraged consumers to believe that they were safer.

Tobacco smoke is made up of “sidestream smoke” from the burning tip of the cigarette and “mainstream smoke” from the filter or mouth end.

Tobacco smoke contains thousands of different chemicals which are released into the air as particles and gases.

Many toxins are present in higher concentrations in sidestream smoke than in mainstream smoke and, typically, nearly 85% of the smoke in a room results from sidestream smoke.

The particulate phase includes nicotine, “tar” (itself composed of many chemicals), benzene and benzo(a)pyrene. The gas phase includes carbon monoxide, ammonia, dimethylnitrosamine, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide and acrolein. Some of these have marked irritant properties and some 60, including benzo(a)pyrene and dimethylnitrosamine, have been shown to cause cancer.

One study has established the link between smoking and lung cancer at the cellular level. It found that a substance in the tar of cigarettes, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), damages DNA in a key tumour suppresser gene.

What is Cigarette Tar?

“Tar”, also known as total particulate matter, is inhaled when the smoker draws on a lighted cigarette. In its condensate form, tar is the sticky brown substance (filled with chemicals) which can stain smokers’ fingers and teeth yellow-brown. All cigarettes produce tar but the brands differ in amounts.

The average tar yield of cigarettes has declined from about 30mg per cigarette in the period 1955 to 61 to 11mg today. There have also been reductions in nicotine (from an average of about 2mg in 1955, 61 to about 0.9mg by 1996). Until January 1992, information about tar yields of cigarettes was given in a general fashion on cigarette packets and advertisements as a result of a voluntary agreement between the tobacco industry and the Government.

Due to labeling (Safety) regulations requirements for health warnings on tobacco, cigarette packets must include a statement of both the tar and the nicotine yield per cigarette on the packet itself. The same figures are printed on cigarette advertising, along with the health warning, as part of a voluntary agreement between the industry and health regulators.

Following the discovery in the 1950s that it was the tar in tobacco smoke which was associated with the increased risk of lung cancer, tobacco companies, with the approval of successive governments, embarked on a program to gradually reduce the tar levels in cigarettes.

Although there is a moderate reduction in lung cancer risk associated with lower tar cigarettes, research suggests that the assumed health advantages of switching to lower tar may be largely offset by the tendency of smokers to compensate for the reduction in nicotine (cigarettes lower in tar also tend to be lower in nicotine) by smoking more or inhaling more deeply.

Also, a study by the American Cancer Society found that the use of filtered, lower tar cigarettes may be the cause of adenocarcinoma, a particular kind of lung cancer. There is no evidence that switching to lower tar cigarettes reduces coronary heart disease risk.

Cigarette IngredientsNicotine, an alkaloid, is an extremely powerful drug. The Royal College of Physicians in England and the Surgeon General in USA have affirmed that the way in which nicotine causes addiction is similar to drugs such as heroin and cocaine.

Only 60mg of pure nicotine (contained in two packs of cigarettes) placed on a person’s tongue would kill within minutes.

Nicotine is contained in the moisture of the tobacco leaf: when the cigarette is lit, it evaporates, attaching itself to minute droplets in the tobacco smoke inhaled by the smoker. It is absorbed by the body very quickly, reaching the brain within 7-15 seconds.

It stimulates the central nervous system, increasing the heart beat rate and blood pressure, leading to the heart needing more oxygen. Carbon Monoxide, the main poisonous gas in car exhausts, is present in all cigarette smoke. It binds to haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen, thus causing the blood to carry less oxygen.

Heavy smokers may have the oxygen carrying power of their blood cut by as much as 15%.

Source: Emirates Hospital, Dubai – U.A.E

~CiggyBot

— *~ When fate closes a door go in through a window~*

 

 

Bookmark and Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,


What do you think? Please enter your comments below.

Comments
  1.  
    By Peter Collett
    October 4, 2007
     

    Good article, thank you. I am now using a completely natural herbal mixture instead of pipe tobacco. I make it up myself and have had virtually no ‘nicotine’ withdrawal symptoms to date. I did it by gradually reducing the amount of tobacco used alongside the herbal mixture!

  2.  
    October 4, 2007
     

    Hi Peter,

    Maybe your next step can be to protect your lungs from smoke? BTW you have spyware on your computer = Seekmo
    Google it to see how to remove it.

    Cheers,
    robbster

  3.  
    By Steve Rolf
    March 8, 2009
     

    Have been trying to learn what chemical compounds constitute cigarette ‘tar’. I thought I finally found my answer with your paragraph above that starts “What is tar?…” Guess not! After investing many, many hours on the web researching this question and not finding even a hint of an answer, should I conclude that nobody knows the answer?

  4.  
    By admin
    March 12, 2009
     

    Here are some explanations of what constitutes cigarette tar via wikipedia: Tar includes the majority of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents in tobacco smoke (IARC, 1986). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), for example, are genotoxic via epoxidation. Visit > More information on Tar in Cigarettes

  5.  
    By Olive
    May 2, 2009
     

    Hi, does anyone happen to know more about chemical details of tar. I need it for my project “harms of tobacco smoking and measures to reduce it.” I would also appreciate if someone can also tell chemical measures to remove it from smoke (not using those micro-filters).

  6.  
    By Sandy
    May 5, 2009
     

    Hi Olive, you will want to read this article:
    learn more about Tar in Cigarettes.

  7.  
    By Pramod
    December 2, 2009
     

    Tar is a mixture of various heavy carbon compounds. The oil which is drilled out of the ground has tar and along with it various other chemicals in decreasing molecular weight. Tar and asphalt are among the heaviest, your regular gasoline has octane which is somewhere in the middle, your regular cooking gas is almost at the lowest level. Tar is also the compound used to lay roads. The black color of roads is rendered by tar. Tar along with various other industrial chemicals, yes pesticides and other garbage which is stuff that can generally kill you, are present in a cigarette. When burnt, as Robbster mentioned, it will prevent oxygen absorption by attaching to alveoli in your lungs. Alveoli absorb the oxygen you breathe and deliver it to blood. If you see a cut section of a smoker’s lung, it will be black. A healthy lung will be pinkish white.

  8.  
    By Enoch B.
    June 4, 2010
     

    What are the effects of cigarettes on human health?

  9.  
    By Sandy
    June 5, 2010
     

    Hi Enoch … This is a good overall article to begin with > Smoking Effects on Your Health

  10.  
    By Deb
    September 29, 2010
     

    Does anyone know more about Benzene and how it builds up in the body over time?

Enter Your Comment or Question:

(required)

(required)


Your e-mail address will not be displayed and will remain confidential.


By commenting here you grant CiggyFree.com a perpetual license to reproduce your words and submitted name/web site in attribution.

RSS feed for comments on this post | TrackBack URI

 

 

Page Protected by Copyscape - Do Not Copy  |  CiggyFree.com is © HeartCore Corporation 2004-2017

  • Search CiggyFree.com

    Bookmark and Share

    Subscribe